Publications 1981 2018

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Conference contribution
2017

Reactive-element-free, silver-based brazes for SOFC applications

Zhou, Q., Bieler, T. R. & Nicholas, J. D. May 30 2017 ECS Transactions. 1 ed. Electrochemical Society Inc., Vol. 78, p. 1759-1767 9 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC)
Silver
Brazing
Yttria stabilized zirconia
Wetting
2015
2 Citations

A Matlab toolbox to analyze slip transfer through grain boundaries

Mercier, D., Zambaldi, C. & Bieler, T. R. Apr 24 2015 IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 1 ed. Institute of Physics Publishing, Vol. 82, 012090

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Grain boundaries
Common Bile Duct Diseases
Transaminases
Experiments
Cinanserin

Deformation mechanisms, defects, heat treatment, and thermal conductivity in large grain niobium

Bieler, T. R., Kang, D., Baars, D. C., Chandrasekaran, S., Mapar, A., Ciovati, G., Wright, N. T., Pourboghrat, F., Murphy, J. E., Compton, C. C. & Myneni, G. R. Dec 4 2015 Science and Technology of Ingot Niobium for Superconducting Radio Frequency Applications. American Institute of Physics Inc., Vol. 1687, 020002

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

cavities
ingots
heat treatment
thermal conductivity
single crystals

Large grain CBMM Nb ingot slices: An ideal test bed for exploring the microstructure-electromagnetic property relationships relevant to SRF

Sung, Z. H., Lee, P. J., Polyanskii, A., Balachandran, S., Chetri, S., Larbalestier, D. C., Wang, M., Compton, C. & Bieler, T. R. Dec 4 2015 Science and Technology of Ingot Niobium for Superconducting Radio Frequency Applications. American Institute of Physics Inc., Vol. 1687, 020004

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

grain boundaries
ingots
niobium
purity
penetration

Mechanistic modeling of the anisotropic steady state creep response of snagcu single crystal

Mukherjee, S., Zhou, B., Dasgupta, A. & Bieler, T. R. 2015 Advanced Electronics and Photonics, Packaging Materials and Processing; Advanced Electronics and Photonics: Packaging, Interconnect and Reliability; Fundamentals of Thermal and Fluid Transport in Nano, Micro, and Mini Scales. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Vol. 2

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Creep
Erythrocyte Inclusions
Cardanolides
Eutectics
Addison Disease

Multiscale modeling of the anisotropic transient creep response of heterogeneous SAC single crystal

Mukherjee, S., Zhou, B., Dasgupta, A. & Bieler, T. R. May 6 2015 2015 16th International Conference on Thermal, Mechanical and Multi-Physics Simulation and Experiments in Microelectronics and Microsystems, EuroSimE 2015. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 7103155

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Creep
Eutectics
Crystal orientation
Soldering alloys
Mechanics
2014
1 Citations

The impact of microstructure evolution, localized recrystallization and board thickness on Sn-Ag-Cu interconnect board level shock performance

Lee, T. K., Xie, W., Bieler, T. R. & Kim, C. U. Sep 11 2014 Proceedings - Electronic Components and Technology Conference. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 697-702 6 p. 6897360

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Bibliography of Medicine
Employee Grievances
Erwinia
Microstructure
Crystal microstructure

The root cause of nose and flank wear and their behavior in turning Ti-6Al-4V with carbides and PCD inserts

Nguyen, T., Kwon, P., Kang, D. & Bieler, T. 2014 ASME 2014 International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference, MSEC 2014 Collocated with the JSME 2014 International Conference on Materials and Processing and the 42nd North American Manufacturing Research Conference. Web Portal ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers), Vol. 2, V002T02A047

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Carbides
Machining
Microscopes
Microstructure
Cutting tools
2012

Analysis of the tension and creep behavior of Ti-5Al-2. 5Sn(wt. %) using in-situ SEM experiments

Li, H., Boehlert, C. J., Bieler, T. R. & Crimp, M. A. 2012 Ti 2011 - Proceedings of the 12th World Conference on Titanium. Vol. 2, p. 937-941 5 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Carbamyl Phosphate
Common Bile Duct Diseases
Experiments
Creep
Grain boundaries

Grain boundary strain transfer and anisotropic polycrystalline deformation in commercial purity titanium

Crimp, M. A., Yang, Y., Wang, L., Eisenlohr, P. & Bieler, T. R. 2012 Ti 2011 - Proceedings of the 12th World Conference on Titanium. Vol. 2, p. 1061-1065 5 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Carbamyl Phosphate
Carbamoyl-Phosphate Synthase (Glutamine-Hydrolyzing)
Cape Verde
Abdominal Injuries
Melphalan

Phonon scattering in the thermal conductivity of large-grain superconducting niobium as a function of heat treatment temperature

Chandrasekaran, S. K., Bieler, T. R., Compton, C. & Wright, N. T. 2012 AIP Conference Proceedings. 57 ed. Vol. 1434, p. 976-982 7 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

heat treatment
temperature
niobium
thermal conductivity
scattering
2011
6 Citations

Characterization of large grain Nb ingot microstructure using EBSP mapping and Laue camera methods

Kang, D., Baars, D. C., Bieler, T. R. & Compton, C. C. 2011 AIP Conference Proceedings. Vol. 1352, p. 90-99 10 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

ingots
microscopy
Laue method
cameras
electrons
4 Citations

Comparison of the role of moderate heat treatment temperatures on the thermal conductivity of ingot niobium

Chandrasekaran, S. K., Bieler, T. R., Compton, C., Hartung, W. & Wright, N. T. 2011 AIP Conference Proceedings. Vol. 1352, p. 131-141 11 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

niobium
ingots
thermal conductivity
histories
temperature

Modulus enhancement and orientation in die-drawn PP-talc composites

Rane, R. H., Jayaraman, K., Bieler, T. R. & Nichols, K. L. 2011 AIChE Annual Meeting, Conference Proceedings.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Talc
Composite materials

Responses of carbon onions to high energy heavy ion irradiation

Alduhaileb, R. A., Xie, K., Myers, J. C., Ayres, V. M., Jacobs, B. W., McElroy, K., Bieler, T., Crimp, M., Fan, X., Ronningen, R. M., Zeller, A. F., Baumann, T. & Hirata, A. 2011 Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings. Vol. 1298, p. 251-256 6 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Graphene
graphene
Carbon
carbon
Heavy ions
4 Citations

The role of elastic and plastic anisotropy of Sn on microstructure and damage evolution in lead-free solder joints

Bieler, T. R., Zhou, B., Blair, L., Zamiri, A., Darbandi, P., Pourboghrat, F., Lee, T. K. & Liu, K. C. 2011 IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium Proceedings. 5784538

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Microstructural evolution
Anisotropy
Nucleation
Plastics
Cracks
2010

Catalyst-free GaN nanowire nucleation: Correlation of temperature-dependent nanowire orientation and growth matrix changes

McElroy, K., Ayres, V. M., Bieler, T. R., Jacobs, B. W. & Crimp, M. A. 2010 Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings. Vol. 1206, p. 71-76 6 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Erythrasma
Nanowires
nanowires
Afferent Loop Syndrome
Catalysts

Development of a cryogenic mechanical property testing station for superconducting RF cavity material

Compton, C., Chandrasekaran, S. K., Baars, D., Bieler, T., Darbandi, P. & Wright, N. 2010 AIP Conference Proceedings. Vol. 1218, p. 587-594 8 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

stations
cryogenic temperature
mechanical properties
pressure vessels
cryogenics

Impact of isothermal aging on fine pitch BGA packages with Sn-Ag-Cu solder interconnects

Lee, T. K., Xie, W., Bieler, T. R., Liu, K. C. & Xue, J. 2010 43rd International Symposium on Microelectronics 2010, IMAPS 2010. p. 298-305 8 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Soldering alloys
Microstructure
Ball grid arrays
Thermal cycling
Thermal aging

Microstructure of expanded PP-talc composites from solid-phase die drawing

Rane, R. K., Jayaraman, K., Bieler, T. R., Nichols, K. L. & Mazor, M. H. 2010 Annual Technical Conference - ANTEC, Conference Proceedings. Vol. 3, p. 1932-1937 6 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Talc
Composite materials
Polypropylenes
Crystal orientation
Crystalline materials
3 Citations

Parameter estimation of the thermal conductivity of superconducting niobium

Chandrasekaran, S. K., Beck, J. V., Bieler, T. R., Compton, C. C. & Wright, N. T. 2010 Proceedings of the 30th International Thermal Conductivity Conference and the 18th International Thermal Expansion Symposium, Thermal Conductivity 30/Thermal Expansion 18. p. 742-749 8 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

niobium
thermal conductivity
temperature
Niobium
Thermal conductivity
2 Citations

The interaction between grain orientation evolution and thermal cycling as a function of position in ball grid arrays using Orientation Image Microscopy

Lee, T. K., Zhou, B., Blair, L., Liu, K. C., Xue, J. & Bieler, T. R. 2010 Proceedings - Electronic Components and Technology Conference. p. 1591-1595 5 p. 5490774

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Thermal cycling
Biophysics
Microscopic examination
Employee Grievances
Adenofibroma
2009
4 Citations

Characterization of SAC solder microstructure evolution during thermal cycling with statistical and in-situ methods

Zhou, B., Bieler, T. R., Wu, G., Zaefferer, S., Lee, T. K. & Liu, K. C. 2009 Proceedings - 2009 International Symposium on Microelectronics, IMAPS 2009. p. 158-165 8 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Soldering alloys
Microstructure
Thermal cycling
Diffraction patterns
Light polarization
7 Citations

Grain orientation and microstructure evolution in Sn-Ag-Cu solder joints as a function of position in ball grid array packages

Lee, T. K., Zhou, B., Blair, L., Liu, K. C. & Bieler, T. R. 2009 Proceedings - 2009 International Symposium on Microelectronics, IMAPS 2009. p. 142-149 8 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Soldering alloys
Thermal cycling
Microstructure
Ball grid arrays
Thermal aging

Polymer orientation in polypropylene-talc composites stretched below the melting temperature

Rane, R. H., Jayaraman, K., Bieler, T. R., Nichols, K. L. & Mazor, M. H. 2009 Annual Technical Conference - ANTEC, Conference Proceedings. Vol. 3, p. 1499-1503 5 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Composite materials
Talc
Polypropylenes
Melting point
Crystalline materials
2008
4 Citations

Effects of elastic modulus on deformation and recrystallization of high purity Nb

Baars, D., Jiang, H., Bieler, T. R., Zamiri, A., Pourboghrat, F. & Compton, C. 2008 Ceramic Transactions. Vol. 201, p. 391-398 8 p. (Ceramic Transactions; vol. 201)

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Carbamyl Phosphate
Preganglionic Autonomic Fibers
Textures
Metals
Steel
2007
1 Citations

Single crystal and large grain niobium research at Michigan State University

Compton, C., Aizaz, A., Baars, D., Bieler, T., Bierwagen, J., Bricker, S., Grimm, T., Hartung, W., Jiang, H., Johnson, M., Popielarski, J., Saxton, L., Antoine, C., Wagner, B. & Kneisel, P. 2007 AIP Conference Proceedings. Vol. 927, p. 98-105 8 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

niobium
accelerators
cavities
radio frequencies
fabrication
2006
78 Citations

Influence of Sn grain size and orientation on the thermomechanical response and reliability of Pb-free solder joints

Bieler, T. R., Jiang, H., Lehman, L. P., Kirkpatrick, T. & Cotts, E. J. 2006 Proceedings - Electronic Components and Technology Conference. Vol. 2006, p. 1462-1467 6 p. 1645849

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Soldering alloys
Thermal expansion
Substrates
Tensile stress
Eutectics
2005

Microstructural, mechanical and crystallographic texture evolutions in TI-6AL-4V

Zeng, L. & Bieler, T. R. 2005 MPMD Sixth Global Innovations Proceedings - Trends in Materials and Manufacturing Technologies for Transportation Industries and Powder Metall. Research and Development in the Transportation Industry. Bieler, T. R., Carsley, J. E., Fraser, H. L., Sears, J. W. & Smugeresky, J. E. (eds.). p. 261-266 6 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Textures
Wire
Fibers
Quenching
Mechanical properties
4 Citations

Prediction of crack paths based upon detailed microstructure characterization in a neair-γ TiAl Alloy

Ng, B. C., Bieler, T. R., Crimp, M. A. & Mason, D. E. 2005 Materials Damage Prognosis - Proceedings of a Symposium of the Materials Science and Technology 2004 Conference. Larsen, J. M., Christodoulou, L., Calcaterra, J. R., Dent, M. L., Derriso, M. M., Hardman, W. J., Wayne Jones, J. & Rusa, S. M. (eds.). p. 307-314 8 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Cracks
Microstructure
Crack propagation
Twinning
Microcracks
4 Citations

The role of special boundaries during solidification and microstructure evolution in lead free solder joints

Telang, A. U. & Bieler, T. R. 2005 Materials Science Forum. PART 2 ed. Vol. 495-497, p. 1419-1424 6 p. (Materials Science Forum; vol. 495-497, no. PART 2)

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Fingersucking
Solidification
Employee Grievances
Acetanilides
Adenofibroma
2003
8 Citations

Mechanical properties, microstructure, and texture of electron beam butt welds in high purity niobium

Jiang, H., Bieler, T. R., Compton, C. & Grimm, T. L. 2003 Proceedings of the IEEE Particle Accelerator Conference. Chew, J., Lucas, P. & Webber, S. (eds.). Vol. 2, p. 1359-1361 3 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Welds
Textures
Microstructure
Microhardness
Niobium
2 Citations

Microcrack Nucleation and Crack Propagation in Equiaxed γ TiAl

Crimp, M. A., Ng, B. C., Simkin, B. A. & Bieler, T. R. 2003 Materials Research Society Symposium - Proceedings. George, E. P., Inui, H., Mills, M. J. & Eggeler, G. (eds.). Vol. 753, p. 143-148 6 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Myoepithelioma
Carbamyl Phosphate
Microcracks
Electrons
Carbamoyl-Phosphate Synthase (Glutamine-Hydrolyzing)
3 Citations

Studies of twin activity at crack tips in near-gamma TiAL using electron channeling contrast imaging

Ng, B. C., Crimp, M. A., Bieler, T. R. & Mason, D. E. 2003 Gamma Titanium Aluminides 2003. Kim, Y. W., Clemens, H. & Rosenberger, A. H. (eds.). p. 503-508 6 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Cracks
Toughness
Microcracks
Imaging techniques
Electrons

TMS Annual Meeting: Preface

Jin, Z., Beaudoin, A., Bieler, T. R. & Radakrishnan, B. 2003 TMS Annual Meeting. Jin, Z., Beaudoin, A., Bieler, T. A. & Radhakrishnan, B. (eds.).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

2002
2 Citations

Tensile microcrack initiation at γ-γ boundaries in TiAl

Simkin, B. A., Bieler, T. R. & Crimp, M. A. 2002 Proceedings of the TMS Fall Meeting. Soboyejo, W. O., Lewandowski, J. J. & Ritchie, R. O. (eds.). p. 309-314 6 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Microcracks
Grain boundaries
Twinning
Microcracking
Crystal orientation
5 Citations

The effect of crystal orientation on crack nucleation and arrest in a near-gamma TiAl alloy

Ng, B. C., Bieler, T. R. & Crimp, M. A. 2002 Proceedings of the TMS Fall Meeting. Soboyejo, W. O., Lewandowski, J. J. & Ritchie, R. O. (eds.). p. 303-308 6 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Cracks
Grain boundaries
Microcracks
Nucleation
Twinning
2001
2 Citations

Analysis of primary hot working of Ti-6Al-4V with orientation imaging

Bieler, T. R. & Semiatin, S. L. 2001 Microstructure Modeling and Prediction During Thermomechanical Processing. Srinivasan, R., Semiatin, S. L., Beaudoin, A., Fox, S., Jin, Z., Srinivasan, R., Semiatin, S. L., Beaudoin, A., Fox, S. & Jin, Z. (eds.). p. 27-36 10 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Microstructure
Hot working
Imaging techniques
Constitutive models
Nucleation

Feedback loops along the pre-requisite tree

Bieler, T. R., Huebner, M., Soutas-Little, R. W. & Crimp, M. J. 2001 Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings. Vol. 632, p. 1-12 12 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Feedback
Neurophysiological Recruitment
Students
Hospital Hemodialysis Units
Curricula
1 Citations

Measurements and modeling of deformation transfer at γ-γ grain boundaries in TiAl

Mason, D. E., Simkin, B. A., Crimp, M. A. & Bieler, T. R. 2001 Proceedings of the TMS Fall Meeting. Lesuer, D. R. & Srivatsan, T. R. (eds.). p. 149-160 12 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Grain boundaries
Imaging techniques
Electrons
Trace analysis
Microcracks
10 Citations

The effect of crystal orientation on deformation transfer at γ-γ boundaries in a near-γ TiAl based alloy

Simkin, B. A., Crimp, M. A., Bieler, T. R. & Mason, D. E. 2001 Proceedings of the International Symposium on Structural Intermetallics. Hemker, K. J., Dimiduk, D. M., Clemens, H. & Darolia, R. (eds.). p. 391-400 10 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Carbamyl Phosphate
Twinning
Crystal orientation
Carbamoyl-Phosphate Synthase (Glutamine-Hydrolyzing)
Edema Disease of Swine
1998
3 Citations

Effect of carbon concentration on primary creep of an investment cast Ti-47Al-2Mn-2Nb+0.8vol%TiB2 alloy

Seo, D. Y., Everard, T., McQuay, P. A. & Bieler, T. R. 1998 Proceedings of the TMS Fall Meeting. Minerals, Metals & Materials Soc (TMS), p. 227-234 8 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Carbon
Creep
Creep resistance
Microstructure
Experiments
1 Citations

High rate superplastic forging and diffusion bonding

Hopper, M. A. & Bieler, T. R. 1998 TMS Annual Meeting. Minerals, Metals & Materials Soc (TMS), p. 305-312 8 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Forging
strain rate
Cimetidine
Fetal Globulins
Edema Disease of Swine
16 Citations

Nanoindentation characterization of microphases in Sn-3.5 Ag eutectic solder joints

Lucas, J. P., Gibson, A. W., Subramanian, K. N. & Bieler, T. R. 1998 Materials Research Society Symposium - Proceedings. Schwartz, D. S., Shih, D. S., Evans, A. G. & Wadley, H. N. G. (eds.). MRS, Vol. 522, p. 339-345 7 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Employee Grievances
Soldering alloys
Cardanolides
Eutectics
Enzyme Reactivators
1 Citations

Texture changes due to elevated temperature deformation of mechanically alloyed aluminum tensile specimens

Jin, Z. & Bieler, T. R. 1998 TMS Annual Meeting. Minerals, Metals & Materials Soc (TMS), p. 197-207 11 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Preganglionic Autonomic Fibers
Textures
texture
Carbamyl Phosphate
Grain boundary sliding
1997
6 Citations

Comparison of the creep properties of cast and powder metallurgy-extruded binary NiAl

Raj, S. V., Garg, A. & Bieler, T. R. 1997 Materials Research Society Symposium - Proceedings. Materials Research Society, Vol. 460, p. 473-478 6 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Creep
Addison Disease
Argon
Powder metallurgy
Traffic Accidents
6 Citations

Effect of interstitial concentration and heat treatment on microstructure and primary creep of investment cast Ti-47Al-2Nb-2Mn with 0.8v% TiB2

Seo, D. Y., Bieler, T. R. & Larsen, D. E. 1997 Materials Research Society Symposium - Proceedings. Materials Research Society, Vol. 460, p. 281-286 6 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Creep
Heat treatment
Microstructure
Carbamoyl-Phosphate Synthase (Glutamine-Hydrolyzing)
Acetanilides
9 Citations

Effect of stress and temperature on primary creep of Ti-47Al-2Nb-1Mn-0.5W-0.5Mo-0.2Si alloy

Seo, D. Y., Bieler, T. R. & Larsen, D. E. 1997 Proceedings of the International Conference on Creep and Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures. Earthman, J. C. & Mohamed, F. A. (eds.). Minerals, Metals & Materials Soc (TMS), p. 577-586 10 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Creep
Temperature
Twinning
Microstructural evolution
Shear strain
47 Citations

Environmental concerns and materials issues in manufactured solder joints

Gibson, A. W., Choi, S., Bieler, T. R. & Subramanian, K. N. 1997 IEEE International Symposium on Electronics & the Environment. Anon (ed.). IEEE, p. 246-251 6 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Soldering alloys
Composite materials
Microstructural evolution
Strengthening (metal)
Eutectics
17 Citations

Issues regarding microstructural coarsening due to aging of eutectic tin-silver solder

Gibson, A. W., Choi, S. L., Subramanian, K. N. & Bieler, T. R. 1997 TMS Annual Meeting. Minerals, Metals & Materials Soc (TMS), p. 97-103 7 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Employee Grievances
Soldering alloys
Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-NH Group Donors
Composite materials
Cardanolides