7T Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid, Glutamate, and Glutamine Reveals Altered Concentrations in Patients With Schizophrenia and Healthy Siblings

Katharine N. Thakkar, Lara Rösler, Jannie P. Wijnen, Vincent O. Boer, Dennis W.J. Klomp, Wiepke Cahn, René S. Kahn, Sebastiaan F.W. Neggers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  • 11 Citations

Abstract

Background The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor hypofunction model of schizophrenia predicts dysfunction in both glutamatergic and gamma-aminobutyric acidergic (GABAergic) transmission. We addressed this hypothesis by measuring GABA, glutamate, glutamine, and the sum of glutamine plus glutamate concentrations in vivo in patients with schizophrenia using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 7T, which allows separation of metabolites that would otherwise overlap at lower field strengths. In addition, we investigated whether altered levels of GABA, glutamate, glutamine, and the sum of glutamine plus glutamate reflect genetic vulnerability to schizophrenia by including healthy first-degree relatives. Methods Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 7T was performed in 21 patients with chronic schizophrenia who were taking medication, 23 healthy first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia, and 24 healthy nonrelatives. Glutamate, glutamine, and GABA were measured cortically and subcortically in bilateral basal ganglia and occipital cortex. Results Patients with schizophrenia had reduced cortical GABA compared with healthy relatives and the combined sample of healthy relatives and healthy nonrelatives, suggesting that altered GABAergic systems in schizophrenia are associated with either disease state or medication effects. Reduced cortical glutamine relative to healthy control subjects was observed in patients with schizophrenia and the combined sample of healthy relatives and patients with schizophrenia, suggesting that altered glutamatergic metabolite levels are associated with illness liability. No group differences were found in the basal ganglia. Conclusions Taken together, these findings are consistent with alterations in GABAergic and glutamatergic systems in patients with schizophrenia and provide novel insights into these systems in healthy relatives.

LanguageEnglish (US)
Pages525-535
Number of pages11
JournalBiological Psychiatry
Volume81
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 15 2017

Profile

Glutamine
gamma-Aminobutyric Acid
Siblings
Glutamic Acid
Schizophrenia
Basal Ganglia
Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Occipital Lobe
N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptors
Healthy Volunteers

Keywords

  • First-degree relatives
  • GABA
  • Glutamate
  • Glutamine
  • Magnetic resonance spectroscopy
  • Schizophrenia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biological Psychiatry

Cite this

7T Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid, Glutamate, and Glutamine Reveals Altered Concentrations in Patients With Schizophrenia and Healthy Siblings. / Thakkar, Katharine N.; Rösler, Lara; Wijnen, Jannie P.; Boer, Vincent O.; Klomp, Dennis W.J.; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S.; Neggers, Sebastiaan F.W.

In: Biological Psychiatry, Vol. 81, No. 6, 15.03.2017, p. 525-535.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Thakkar, Katharine N. ; Rösler, Lara ; Wijnen, Jannie P. ; Boer, Vincent O. ; Klomp, Dennis W.J. ; Cahn, Wiepke ; Kahn, René S. ; Neggers, Sebastiaan F.W./ 7T Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid, Glutamate, and Glutamine Reveals Altered Concentrations in Patients With Schizophrenia and Healthy Siblings. In: Biological Psychiatry. 2017 ; Vol. 81, No. 6. pp. 525-535
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abstract = "Background The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor hypofunction model of schizophrenia predicts dysfunction in both glutamatergic and gamma-aminobutyric acidergic (GABAergic) transmission. We addressed this hypothesis by measuring GABA, glutamate, glutamine, and the sum of glutamine plus glutamate concentrations in vivo in patients with schizophrenia using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 7T, which allows separation of metabolites that would otherwise overlap at lower field strengths. In addition, we investigated whether altered levels of GABA, glutamate, glutamine, and the sum of glutamine plus glutamate reflect genetic vulnerability to schizophrenia by including healthy first-degree relatives. Methods Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 7T was performed in 21 patients with chronic schizophrenia who were taking medication, 23 healthy first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia, and 24 healthy nonrelatives. Glutamate, glutamine, and GABA were measured cortically and subcortically in bilateral basal ganglia and occipital cortex. Results Patients with schizophrenia had reduced cortical GABA compared with healthy relatives and the combined sample of healthy relatives and healthy nonrelatives, suggesting that altered GABAergic systems in schizophrenia are associated with either disease state or medication effects. Reduced cortical glutamine relative to healthy control subjects was observed in patients with schizophrenia and the combined sample of healthy relatives and patients with schizophrenia, suggesting that altered glutamatergic metabolite levels are associated with illness liability. No group differences were found in the basal ganglia. Conclusions Taken together, these findings are consistent with alterations in GABAergic and glutamatergic systems in patients with schizophrenia and provide novel insights into these systems in healthy relatives.",
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AU - Thakkar,Katharine N.

AU - Rösler,Lara

AU - Wijnen,Jannie P.

AU - Boer,Vincent O.

AU - Klomp,Dennis W.J.

AU - Cahn,Wiepke

AU - Kahn,René S.

AU - Neggers,Sebastiaan F.W.

PY - 2017/3/15

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N2 - Background The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor hypofunction model of schizophrenia predicts dysfunction in both glutamatergic and gamma-aminobutyric acidergic (GABAergic) transmission. We addressed this hypothesis by measuring GABA, glutamate, glutamine, and the sum of glutamine plus glutamate concentrations in vivo in patients with schizophrenia using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 7T, which allows separation of metabolites that would otherwise overlap at lower field strengths. In addition, we investigated whether altered levels of GABA, glutamate, glutamine, and the sum of glutamine plus glutamate reflect genetic vulnerability to schizophrenia by including healthy first-degree relatives. Methods Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 7T was performed in 21 patients with chronic schizophrenia who were taking medication, 23 healthy first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia, and 24 healthy nonrelatives. Glutamate, glutamine, and GABA were measured cortically and subcortically in bilateral basal ganglia and occipital cortex. Results Patients with schizophrenia had reduced cortical GABA compared with healthy relatives and the combined sample of healthy relatives and healthy nonrelatives, suggesting that altered GABAergic systems in schizophrenia are associated with either disease state or medication effects. Reduced cortical glutamine relative to healthy control subjects was observed in patients with schizophrenia and the combined sample of healthy relatives and patients with schizophrenia, suggesting that altered glutamatergic metabolite levels are associated with illness liability. No group differences were found in the basal ganglia. Conclusions Taken together, these findings are consistent with alterations in GABAergic and glutamatergic systems in patients with schizophrenia and provide novel insights into these systems in healthy relatives.

AB - Background The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor hypofunction model of schizophrenia predicts dysfunction in both glutamatergic and gamma-aminobutyric acidergic (GABAergic) transmission. We addressed this hypothesis by measuring GABA, glutamate, glutamine, and the sum of glutamine plus glutamate concentrations in vivo in patients with schizophrenia using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 7T, which allows separation of metabolites that would otherwise overlap at lower field strengths. In addition, we investigated whether altered levels of GABA, glutamate, glutamine, and the sum of glutamine plus glutamate reflect genetic vulnerability to schizophrenia by including healthy first-degree relatives. Methods Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 7T was performed in 21 patients with chronic schizophrenia who were taking medication, 23 healthy first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia, and 24 healthy nonrelatives. Glutamate, glutamine, and GABA were measured cortically and subcortically in bilateral basal ganglia and occipital cortex. Results Patients with schizophrenia had reduced cortical GABA compared with healthy relatives and the combined sample of healthy relatives and healthy nonrelatives, suggesting that altered GABAergic systems in schizophrenia are associated with either disease state or medication effects. Reduced cortical glutamine relative to healthy control subjects was observed in patients with schizophrenia and the combined sample of healthy relatives and patients with schizophrenia, suggesting that altered glutamatergic metabolite levels are associated with illness liability. No group differences were found in the basal ganglia. Conclusions Taken together, these findings are consistent with alterations in GABAergic and glutamatergic systems in patients with schizophrenia and provide novel insights into these systems in healthy relatives.

KW - First-degree relatives

KW - GABA

KW - Glutamate

KW - Glutamine

KW - Magnetic resonance spectroscopy

KW - Schizophrenia

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