Biocompatibility and mechanical properties of diamond-like coatings on cobalt-chromium-molybdenum steel and titanium-aluminum-vanadium biomedical alloys

C. Hinüber, C. Kleemann, R. J. Friederichs, L. Haubold, H. J. Scheibe, T. Schuelke, C. Boehlert, M. J. Baumann

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films are favored for wear components because of diamond-like hardness, low friction, low wear, and high corrosion resistance (Schultz et al., Mat-wiss u Werkstofftech 2004;35:924-928; Lappalainen et al., J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2003;66B:410-413; Tiainen, Diam Relat Mater 2001;10:153-160). Several studies have demonstrated their inertness, nontoxicity, and the biocompatibility, which has led to interest among manufacturers of surgical implants (Allen et al., J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2001;58:319-328; Uzumaki et al., Diam Relat Mater 2006;15:982-988; Hauert, Diam Relat Mater 2003;12:583-589; Grill, Diam Relat Mater 2003;12:166-170). In this study, hydrogen-free amorphous, tetrahedrally bonded DLC films (ta-C) were deposited at low temperatures by physical vapor deposition on medical grade Co28Cr6Mo steel and the titanium alloy Ti6Al4V (Scheibe et al., Surf Coat Tech 1996;85:209-214). The mechanical performance of the ta-C was characterized by measuring its surface roughness, contact angle, adhesion, and wear behavior, whereas the biocompatibility was assessed by osteoblast (OB) attachment and cell viability via Live/Dead assay. There was no statistical difference found in the wettability as measured by contact angle measurements for the ta-C coated and the uncoated samples of either Co28Cr6Mo or Ti6Al4V. Rockwell C indentation and dynamic scratch testing on 2-10 Iμm thick ta-C films on Co28Cr6Mo substrates showed excellent adhesion with HF1 grade and up to 48 N for the critical load LC2 during scratch testing. The ta-C coating reduced the wear from 3.5 × 10-5 mm3/Nm for an uncoated control sample (uncoated Co28Cr6Mo against uncoated stainless steel) to 1.1 × 10-7 mm3/Nm (coated Co28Cr6Mo against uncoated stainless steel) in reciprocating pin-on-disk testing. The lowest wear factor of 3.9 × 10-10 mm3/Nm was measured using a ta-C coated steel ball running against a ta-C coated and polished Co28Cr6Mo disk. Student's t-test found that the ta-C coating had no statistically significant (p <0.05) effect on OB attachment, when compared with the uncoated control samples. There was no significant difference (p <0.05) in the Live/Dead assay results in cell death between the ta-C coated Co28Cr6Mo and Ti6Al4V samples and the uncoated controls. Therefore, these ta-C coatings show improved wear and corrosion (Dorner-Reisel et al., Diam Relat Mater 2003;11:823-827; Affato et al., J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2000;53:221-226; Dorner-Reisel et al., Surf Coat Tech 2004;177-178:830-837; Kim et al., Diam Relat Mater 2004;14:35-41) performance and excellent in vitro cyto-compatibility, when compared with currently used uncoated Co28Cr6Mo and Ti6Al4V implant materials.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)388-400
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part A
Volume95 A
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2010

Profile

Coatings
Acetabularia
Biocompatibility
Steel
Testing
Blood Stains
Baclofen
Blood Flow Velocity
Diamond like carbon films
Osteoblasts
Contact angle
Assays
Diamonds
Adhesion
Stainless steel
Chloroquinolinols
Auditory Fatigue
Aldicarb
Beryllium
Recycling

Keywords

  • Co28Cr6Mo
  • diamond-like coatings
  • physical vapor deposition
  • ta-C films
  • Ti6Al4V

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Biomaterials
  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Metals and Alloys

Cite this

Biocompatibility and mechanical properties of diamond-like coatings on cobalt-chromium-molybdenum steel and titanium-aluminum-vanadium biomedical alloys. / Hinüber, C.; Kleemann, C.; Friederichs, R. J.; Haubold, L.; Scheibe, H. J.; Schuelke, T.; Boehlert, C.; Baumann, M. J.

In: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part A, Vol. 95 A, No. 2, 11.2010, p. 388-400.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hinüber, C.; Kleemann, C.; Friederichs, R. J.; Haubold, L.; Scheibe, H. J.; Schuelke, T.; Boehlert, C.; Baumann, M. J. / Biocompatibility and mechanical properties of diamond-like coatings on cobalt-chromium-molybdenum steel and titanium-aluminum-vanadium biomedical alloys.

In: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part A, Vol. 95 A, No. 2, 11.2010, p. 388-400.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - Kleemann,C.

AU - Friederichs,R. J.

AU - Haubold,L.

AU - Scheibe,H. J.

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AU - Boehlert,C.

AU - Baumann,M. J.

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N2 - Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films are favored for wear components because of diamond-like hardness, low friction, low wear, and high corrosion resistance (Schultz et al., Mat-wiss u Werkstofftech 2004;35:924-928; Lappalainen et al., J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2003;66B:410-413; Tiainen, Diam Relat Mater 2001;10:153-160). Several studies have demonstrated their inertness, nontoxicity, and the biocompatibility, which has led to interest among manufacturers of surgical implants (Allen et al., J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2001;58:319-328; Uzumaki et al., Diam Relat Mater 2006;15:982-988; Hauert, Diam Relat Mater 2003;12:583-589; Grill, Diam Relat Mater 2003;12:166-170). In this study, hydrogen-free amorphous, tetrahedrally bonded DLC films (ta-C) were deposited at low temperatures by physical vapor deposition on medical grade Co28Cr6Mo steel and the titanium alloy Ti6Al4V (Scheibe et al., Surf Coat Tech 1996;85:209-214). The mechanical performance of the ta-C was characterized by measuring its surface roughness, contact angle, adhesion, and wear behavior, whereas the biocompatibility was assessed by osteoblast (OB) attachment and cell viability via Live/Dead assay. There was no statistical difference found in the wettability as measured by contact angle measurements for the ta-C coated and the uncoated samples of either Co28Cr6Mo or Ti6Al4V. Rockwell C indentation and dynamic scratch testing on 2-10 Iμm thick ta-C films on Co28Cr6Mo substrates showed excellent adhesion with HF1 grade and up to 48 N for the critical load LC2 during scratch testing. The ta-C coating reduced the wear from 3.5 × 10-5 mm3/Nm for an uncoated control sample (uncoated Co28Cr6Mo against uncoated stainless steel) to 1.1 × 10-7 mm3/Nm (coated Co28Cr6Mo against uncoated stainless steel) in reciprocating pin-on-disk testing. The lowest wear factor of 3.9 × 10-10 mm3/Nm was measured using a ta-C coated steel ball running against a ta-C coated and polished Co28Cr6Mo disk. Student's t-test found that the ta-C coating had no statistically significant (p <0.05) effect on OB attachment, when compared with the uncoated control samples. There was no significant difference (p <0.05) in the Live/Dead assay results in cell death between the ta-C coated Co28Cr6Mo and Ti6Al4V samples and the uncoated controls. Therefore, these ta-C coatings show improved wear and corrosion (Dorner-Reisel et al., Diam Relat Mater 2003;11:823-827; Affato et al., J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2000;53:221-226; Dorner-Reisel et al., Surf Coat Tech 2004;177-178:830-837; Kim et al., Diam Relat Mater 2004;14:35-41) performance and excellent in vitro cyto-compatibility, when compared with currently used uncoated Co28Cr6Mo and Ti6Al4V implant materials.

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