Comprehensive characterization of non-cellulosic recalcitrant cell wall carbohydrates in unhydrolyzed solids from AFEX-pretreated corn stover

Christa Gunawan, Saisi Xue, Sivakumar Pattathil, Leonardo Da Costa Sousa, Bruce E. Dale, Venkatesh Balan

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

    Abstract

    Background: Inefficient carbohydrate conversion has been an unsolved problem for various lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment technologies, including AFEX, dilute acid, and ionic liquid pretreatments. Previous work has shown 22% of total carbohydrates are typically unconverted, remaining as soluble or insoluble oligomers after hydrolysis (72 h) with excess commercial enzyme loading (20 mg enzymes/g biomass). Nearly one third (7 out of 22%) of these total unconverted carbohydrates are present in unhydrolyzed solid (UHS) residues. The presence of these unconverted carbohydrates leads to a considerable sugar yield loss, which negatively impacts the overall economics of the biorefinery. Current commercial enzyme cocktails are not effective to digest specific cross-linkages in plant cell wall glycans, especially some of those present in hemicelluloses and pectins. Thus, obtaining information about the most recalcitrant non-cellulosic glycan cross-linkages becomes a key study to rationally improve commercial enzyme cocktails, by supplementing the required enzyme activities for hydrolyzing those unconverted glycans. Results: In this work, cell wall glycans that could not be enzymatically converted to monomeric sugars from AFEX-pretreated corn stover (CS) were characterized using compositional analysis and glycome profiling tools. The pretreated CS was hydrolyzed using commercial enzyme mixtures comprising cellulase and hemicellulase at 7% glucan loading (~20% solid loading). The carbohydrates present in UHS and liquid hydrolysate were evaluated over a time period of 168 h enzymatic hydrolysis. Cell wall glycan-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were used to characterize the type and abundance of non-cellulosic polysaccharides present in UHS over the course of enzymatic hydrolysis. 4-O-methyl-d-glucuronic acid-substituted xylan and pectic-arabinogalactan were found to be the most abundant epitopes recognized by mAbs in UHS and liquid hydrolysate, suggesting that the commercial enzyme cocktails used in this work are unable to effectively target those substituted polysaccharide residues. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first report using glycome profiling as a tool to dynamically monitor recalcitrant cell wall carbohydrates during the course of enzymatic hydrolysis. Glycome profiling of UHS and liquid hydrolysates unveiled some of the glycans that are not cleaved and enriched after enzyme hydrolysis. The major polysaccharides include 4-O-methyl-d-glucuronic acid-substituted xylan and pectic-arabinogalactan, suggesting that enzymes with glucuronidase and arabinofuranosidase activities are required to maximize monomeric sugar yields. This methodology provides a rapid tool to assist in developing new enzyme cocktails, by supplementing the existing cocktails with the required enzyme activities for achieving complete deconstruction of pretreated biomass in the future.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Article number82
    JournalBiotechnology for Biofuels
    Volume10
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Mar 29 2017

    Profile

    Cell Wall
    Zea mays
    Carbohydrates
    Enzymes
    enzyme
    Polysaccharides
    carbohydrate
    hydrolysis
    Hydrolysis
    Cells
    liquid
    Enzymatic hydrolysis
    Sugars
    Biomass
    Acids
    Liquids
    polysaccharide
    sugar
    maize
    acid

    Keywords

    • Carbohydrates linkages
    • Glycome profiling
    • High-solids loading enzymatic hydrolysis
    • Monoclonal antibody
    • Non-cellulosic polysaccharides
    • Recalcitrant cell-wall glycans
    • Unhydrolyzed solids

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Biotechnology
    • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
    • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
    • Energy(all)
    • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law

    Cite this

    Comprehensive characterization of non-cellulosic recalcitrant cell wall carbohydrates in unhydrolyzed solids from AFEX-pretreated corn stover. / Gunawan, Christa; Xue, Saisi; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Dale, Bruce E.; Balan, Venkatesh.

    In: Biotechnology for Biofuels, Vol. 10, No. 1, 82, 29.03.2017.

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

    Gunawan, Christa; Xue, Saisi; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Dale, Bruce E.; Balan, Venkatesh / Comprehensive characterization of non-cellulosic recalcitrant cell wall carbohydrates in unhydrolyzed solids from AFEX-pretreated corn stover.

    In: Biotechnology for Biofuels, Vol. 10, No. 1, 82, 29.03.2017.

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

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    abstract = "Background: Inefficient carbohydrate conversion has been an unsolved problem for various lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment technologies, including AFEX, dilute acid, and ionic liquid pretreatments. Previous work has shown 22% of total carbohydrates are typically unconverted, remaining as soluble or insoluble oligomers after hydrolysis (72 h) with excess commercial enzyme loading (20 mg enzymes/g biomass). Nearly one third (7 out of 22%) of these total unconverted carbohydrates are present in unhydrolyzed solid (UHS) residues. The presence of these unconverted carbohydrates leads to a considerable sugar yield loss, which negatively impacts the overall economics of the biorefinery. Current commercial enzyme cocktails are not effective to digest specific cross-linkages in plant cell wall glycans, especially some of those present in hemicelluloses and pectins. Thus, obtaining information about the most recalcitrant non-cellulosic glycan cross-linkages becomes a key study to rationally improve commercial enzyme cocktails, by supplementing the required enzyme activities for hydrolyzing those unconverted glycans. Results: In this work, cell wall glycans that could not be enzymatically converted to monomeric sugars from AFEX-pretreated corn stover (CS) were characterized using compositional analysis and glycome profiling tools. The pretreated CS was hydrolyzed using commercial enzyme mixtures comprising cellulase and hemicellulase at 7% glucan loading (~20% solid loading). The carbohydrates present in UHS and liquid hydrolysate were evaluated over a time period of 168 h enzymatic hydrolysis. Cell wall glycan-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were used to characterize the type and abundance of non-cellulosic polysaccharides present in UHS over the course of enzymatic hydrolysis. 4-O-methyl-d-glucuronic acid-substituted xylan and pectic-arabinogalactan were found to be the most abundant epitopes recognized by mAbs in UHS and liquid hydrolysate, suggesting that the commercial enzyme cocktails used in this work are unable to effectively target those substituted polysaccharide residues. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first report using glycome profiling as a tool to dynamically monitor recalcitrant cell wall carbohydrates during the course of enzymatic hydrolysis. Glycome profiling of UHS and liquid hydrolysates unveiled some of the glycans that are not cleaved and enriched after enzyme hydrolysis. The major polysaccharides include 4-O-methyl-d-glucuronic acid-substituted xylan and pectic-arabinogalactan, suggesting that enzymes with glucuronidase and arabinofuranosidase activities are required to maximize monomeric sugar yields. This methodology provides a rapid tool to assist in developing new enzyme cocktails, by supplementing the existing cocktails with the required enzyme activities for achieving complete deconstruction of pretreated biomass in the future.",
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    AU - Gunawan,Christa

    AU - Xue,Saisi

    AU - Pattathil,Sivakumar

    AU - Da Costa Sousa,Leonardo

    AU - Dale,Bruce E.

    AU - Balan,Venkatesh

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    N2 - Background: Inefficient carbohydrate conversion has been an unsolved problem for various lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment technologies, including AFEX, dilute acid, and ionic liquid pretreatments. Previous work has shown 22% of total carbohydrates are typically unconverted, remaining as soluble or insoluble oligomers after hydrolysis (72 h) with excess commercial enzyme loading (20 mg enzymes/g biomass). Nearly one third (7 out of 22%) of these total unconverted carbohydrates are present in unhydrolyzed solid (UHS) residues. The presence of these unconverted carbohydrates leads to a considerable sugar yield loss, which negatively impacts the overall economics of the biorefinery. Current commercial enzyme cocktails are not effective to digest specific cross-linkages in plant cell wall glycans, especially some of those present in hemicelluloses and pectins. Thus, obtaining information about the most recalcitrant non-cellulosic glycan cross-linkages becomes a key study to rationally improve commercial enzyme cocktails, by supplementing the required enzyme activities for hydrolyzing those unconverted glycans. Results: In this work, cell wall glycans that could not be enzymatically converted to monomeric sugars from AFEX-pretreated corn stover (CS) were characterized using compositional analysis and glycome profiling tools. The pretreated CS was hydrolyzed using commercial enzyme mixtures comprising cellulase and hemicellulase at 7% glucan loading (~20% solid loading). The carbohydrates present in UHS and liquid hydrolysate were evaluated over a time period of 168 h enzymatic hydrolysis. Cell wall glycan-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were used to characterize the type and abundance of non-cellulosic polysaccharides present in UHS over the course of enzymatic hydrolysis. 4-O-methyl-d-glucuronic acid-substituted xylan and pectic-arabinogalactan were found to be the most abundant epitopes recognized by mAbs in UHS and liquid hydrolysate, suggesting that the commercial enzyme cocktails used in this work are unable to effectively target those substituted polysaccharide residues. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first report using glycome profiling as a tool to dynamically monitor recalcitrant cell wall carbohydrates during the course of enzymatic hydrolysis. Glycome profiling of UHS and liquid hydrolysates unveiled some of the glycans that are not cleaved and enriched after enzyme hydrolysis. The major polysaccharides include 4-O-methyl-d-glucuronic acid-substituted xylan and pectic-arabinogalactan, suggesting that enzymes with glucuronidase and arabinofuranosidase activities are required to maximize monomeric sugar yields. This methodology provides a rapid tool to assist in developing new enzyme cocktails, by supplementing the existing cocktails with the required enzyme activities for achieving complete deconstruction of pretreated biomass in the future.

    AB - Background: Inefficient carbohydrate conversion has been an unsolved problem for various lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment technologies, including AFEX, dilute acid, and ionic liquid pretreatments. Previous work has shown 22% of total carbohydrates are typically unconverted, remaining as soluble or insoluble oligomers after hydrolysis (72 h) with excess commercial enzyme loading (20 mg enzymes/g biomass). Nearly one third (7 out of 22%) of these total unconverted carbohydrates are present in unhydrolyzed solid (UHS) residues. The presence of these unconverted carbohydrates leads to a considerable sugar yield loss, which negatively impacts the overall economics of the biorefinery. Current commercial enzyme cocktails are not effective to digest specific cross-linkages in plant cell wall glycans, especially some of those present in hemicelluloses and pectins. Thus, obtaining information about the most recalcitrant non-cellulosic glycan cross-linkages becomes a key study to rationally improve commercial enzyme cocktails, by supplementing the required enzyme activities for hydrolyzing those unconverted glycans. Results: In this work, cell wall glycans that could not be enzymatically converted to monomeric sugars from AFEX-pretreated corn stover (CS) were characterized using compositional analysis and glycome profiling tools. The pretreated CS was hydrolyzed using commercial enzyme mixtures comprising cellulase and hemicellulase at 7% glucan loading (~20% solid loading). The carbohydrates present in UHS and liquid hydrolysate were evaluated over a time period of 168 h enzymatic hydrolysis. Cell wall glycan-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were used to characterize the type and abundance of non-cellulosic polysaccharides present in UHS over the course of enzymatic hydrolysis. 4-O-methyl-d-glucuronic acid-substituted xylan and pectic-arabinogalactan were found to be the most abundant epitopes recognized by mAbs in UHS and liquid hydrolysate, suggesting that the commercial enzyme cocktails used in this work are unable to effectively target those substituted polysaccharide residues. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first report using glycome profiling as a tool to dynamically monitor recalcitrant cell wall carbohydrates during the course of enzymatic hydrolysis. Glycome profiling of UHS and liquid hydrolysates unveiled some of the glycans that are not cleaved and enriched after enzyme hydrolysis. The major polysaccharides include 4-O-methyl-d-glucuronic acid-substituted xylan and pectic-arabinogalactan, suggesting that enzymes with glucuronidase and arabinofuranosidase activities are required to maximize monomeric sugar yields. This methodology provides a rapid tool to assist in developing new enzyme cocktails, by supplementing the existing cocktails with the required enzyme activities for achieving complete deconstruction of pretreated biomass in the future.

    KW - Carbohydrates linkages

    KW - Glycome profiling

    KW - High-solids loading enzymatic hydrolysis

    KW - Monoclonal antibody

    KW - Non-cellulosic polysaccharides

    KW - Recalcitrant cell-wall glycans

    KW - Unhydrolyzed solids

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