Does Stereotype Threat Affect Test Performance of Minorities and Women? A Meta-Analysis of Experimental Evidence

Hannah Hanh D Nguyen, Ann Marie Ryan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  • 275 Citations

Abstract

A meta-analysis of stereotype threat effects was conducted and an overall mean effect size of |.26| was found, but true moderator effects existed. A series of hierarchical moderator analyses evidenced differential effects of race- versus gender-based stereotypes. Women experienced smaller performance decrements than did minorities when tests were difficult: mean ds = |.36| and |.43|, respectively. For women, subtle threat-activating cues produced the largest effect, followed by blatant and moderately explicit cues: ds = |.24|, |.18|, and |.17|, respectively; explicit threat-removal strategies were more effective in reducing stereotype threat effects than subtle ones: ds = |.14| and |.33|, respectively. For minorities, moderately explicit stereotype threat-activating cues produced the largest effect, followed by blatant and subtle cues: ds = |.64|, |.41|, and |.22|, respectively; explicit removal strategies enhanced stereotype threat effects compared with subtle strategies: ds = |.80| and |.34|, respectively. In addition, stereotype threat affected moderately math-identified women more severely than highly math-identified women: ds = |.52| and |.29|, respectively; low math-identified women suffered the least from stereotype threat: d= |.11|. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

LanguageEnglish (US)
Pages1314-1334
Number of pages21
JournalJournal of Applied Psychology
Volume93
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2008

Profile

Meta-Analysis
Cues

Keywords

  • cognitive ability test performance
  • gender gap in math scores
  • meta-analysis
  • racial gap in test scores
  • stereotype threat effects

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Psychology

Cite this

Does Stereotype Threat Affect Test Performance of Minorities and Women? A Meta-Analysis of Experimental Evidence. / Nguyen, Hannah Hanh D; Ryan, Ann Marie.

In: Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 93, No. 6, 11.2008, p. 1314-1334.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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