Dynamics of biomass partitioning, stem gene expression, cell wall biosynthesis, and sucrose accumulation during development of Sorghum bicolor

Brian Mckinley, William Rooney, Curtis Wilkerson, John Mullet

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    • 8 Citations

    Abstract

    Biomass accumulated preferentially in leaves of the sweet sorghum Della until floral initiation, then stems until anthesis, followed by panicles until grain maturity, and apical tillers. Sorghum stem RNA-seq transcriptome profiles and composition data were collected for approximately 100 days of development beginning at floral initiation. The analysis identified >200 differentially expressed genes involved in stem growth, cell wall biology, and sucrose accumulation. Genes encoding expansins and xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolases were differentially expressed in growing stem internodes. Genes encoding enzymes involved in the synthesis of cellulose, lignin, and glucuronoarabinoxylan were expressed at elevated levels in stems until approximately 7 days before anthesis and then down-regulated. CESA genes involved in primary and secondary cell wall synthesis showed different temporal patterns of expression. Following floral initiation, the level of sucrose and other non-structural carbohydrates increased to approximately 50% of the stem's dry weight. Stem sucrose accumulation was inversely correlated with >100-fold down-regulation of SbVIN1, a gene encoding a vacuolar invertase. Accumulation of stem sucrose was also correlated with cessation of leaf and stem growth at anthesis, decreased expression of genes involved in stem cell wall synthesis, and approximately 10-fold lower expression of SbSUS4, a gene encoding sucrose synthase that generates UDP-glucose from sucrose for cell wall biosynthesis. Genes for mixed linkage glucan synthesis (CSLF) and turnover were expressed at high levels in stems throughout development. Overall, the stem transcription profile resource and the genes and regulatory dynamics identified in this study will be useful for engineering sorghum stem composition for improved conversion to biofuels and bio-products.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    JournalPlant Journal
    DOIs
    StateAccepted/In press - 2016

    Profile

    Sorghum
    Biomass
    Cell Wall
    Sucrose
    Gene Expression
    Genes
    stems
    genes
    sucrose
    cell walls
    synthesis
    Stem Cells
    flowering
    gene expression
    stem elongation
    biosynthesis
    biomass
    leaves
    Uridine Diphosphate Glucose
    beta-Fructofuranosidase

    Keywords

    • Bioenergy
    • Cell wall biology
    • Sorghum bicolor
    • Stem sucrose
    • Transcriptome analysis
    • Vacuolar invertase

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Genetics
    • Plant Science
    • Cell Biology

    Cite this

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    title = "Dynamics of biomass partitioning, stem gene expression, cell wall biosynthesis, and sucrose accumulation during development of Sorghum bicolor",
    abstract = "Biomass accumulated preferentially in leaves of the sweet sorghum Della until floral initiation, then stems until anthesis, followed by panicles until grain maturity, and apical tillers. Sorghum stem RNA-seq transcriptome profiles and composition data were collected for approximately 100 days of development beginning at floral initiation. The analysis identified >200 differentially expressed genes involved in stem growth, cell wall biology, and sucrose accumulation. Genes encoding expansins and xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolases were differentially expressed in growing stem internodes. Genes encoding enzymes involved in the synthesis of cellulose, lignin, and glucuronoarabinoxylan were expressed at elevated levels in stems until approximately 7 days before anthesis and then down-regulated. CESA genes involved in primary and secondary cell wall synthesis showed different temporal patterns of expression. Following floral initiation, the level of sucrose and other non-structural carbohydrates increased to approximately 50% of the stem's dry weight. Stem sucrose accumulation was inversely correlated with >100-fold down-regulation of SbVIN1, a gene encoding a vacuolar invertase. Accumulation of stem sucrose was also correlated with cessation of leaf and stem growth at anthesis, decreased expression of genes involved in stem cell wall synthesis, and approximately 10-fold lower expression of SbSUS4, a gene encoding sucrose synthase that generates UDP-glucose from sucrose for cell wall biosynthesis. Genes for mixed linkage glucan synthesis (CSLF) and turnover were expressed at high levels in stems throughout development. Overall, the stem transcription profile resource and the genes and regulatory dynamics identified in this study will be useful for engineering sorghum stem composition for improved conversion to biofuels and bio-products.",
    keywords = "Bioenergy, Cell wall biology, Sorghum bicolor, Stem sucrose, Transcriptome analysis, Vacuolar invertase",
    author = "Brian Mckinley and William Rooney and Curtis Wilkerson and John Mullet",
    year = "2016",
    doi = "10.1111/tpj.13269",
    journal = "Plant Journal",
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    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Dynamics of biomass partitioning, stem gene expression, cell wall biosynthesis, and sucrose accumulation during development of Sorghum bicolor

    AU - Mckinley,Brian

    AU - Rooney,William

    AU - Wilkerson,Curtis

    AU - Mullet,John

    PY - 2016

    Y1 - 2016

    N2 - Biomass accumulated preferentially in leaves of the sweet sorghum Della until floral initiation, then stems until anthesis, followed by panicles until grain maturity, and apical tillers. Sorghum stem RNA-seq transcriptome profiles and composition data were collected for approximately 100 days of development beginning at floral initiation. The analysis identified >200 differentially expressed genes involved in stem growth, cell wall biology, and sucrose accumulation. Genes encoding expansins and xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolases were differentially expressed in growing stem internodes. Genes encoding enzymes involved in the synthesis of cellulose, lignin, and glucuronoarabinoxylan were expressed at elevated levels in stems until approximately 7 days before anthesis and then down-regulated. CESA genes involved in primary and secondary cell wall synthesis showed different temporal patterns of expression. Following floral initiation, the level of sucrose and other non-structural carbohydrates increased to approximately 50% of the stem's dry weight. Stem sucrose accumulation was inversely correlated with >100-fold down-regulation of SbVIN1, a gene encoding a vacuolar invertase. Accumulation of stem sucrose was also correlated with cessation of leaf and stem growth at anthesis, decreased expression of genes involved in stem cell wall synthesis, and approximately 10-fold lower expression of SbSUS4, a gene encoding sucrose synthase that generates UDP-glucose from sucrose for cell wall biosynthesis. Genes for mixed linkage glucan synthesis (CSLF) and turnover were expressed at high levels in stems throughout development. Overall, the stem transcription profile resource and the genes and regulatory dynamics identified in this study will be useful for engineering sorghum stem composition for improved conversion to biofuels and bio-products.

    AB - Biomass accumulated preferentially in leaves of the sweet sorghum Della until floral initiation, then stems until anthesis, followed by panicles until grain maturity, and apical tillers. Sorghum stem RNA-seq transcriptome profiles and composition data were collected for approximately 100 days of development beginning at floral initiation. The analysis identified >200 differentially expressed genes involved in stem growth, cell wall biology, and sucrose accumulation. Genes encoding expansins and xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolases were differentially expressed in growing stem internodes. Genes encoding enzymes involved in the synthesis of cellulose, lignin, and glucuronoarabinoxylan were expressed at elevated levels in stems until approximately 7 days before anthesis and then down-regulated. CESA genes involved in primary and secondary cell wall synthesis showed different temporal patterns of expression. Following floral initiation, the level of sucrose and other non-structural carbohydrates increased to approximately 50% of the stem's dry weight. Stem sucrose accumulation was inversely correlated with >100-fold down-regulation of SbVIN1, a gene encoding a vacuolar invertase. Accumulation of stem sucrose was also correlated with cessation of leaf and stem growth at anthesis, decreased expression of genes involved in stem cell wall synthesis, and approximately 10-fold lower expression of SbSUS4, a gene encoding sucrose synthase that generates UDP-glucose from sucrose for cell wall biosynthesis. Genes for mixed linkage glucan synthesis (CSLF) and turnover were expressed at high levels in stems throughout development. Overall, the stem transcription profile resource and the genes and regulatory dynamics identified in this study will be useful for engineering sorghum stem composition for improved conversion to biofuels and bio-products.

    KW - Bioenergy

    KW - Cell wall biology

    KW - Sorghum bicolor

    KW - Stem sucrose

    KW - Transcriptome analysis

    KW - Vacuolar invertase

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    DO - 10.1111/tpj.13269

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