General method to predict voltage-dependent ionic conduction in a solid electrolyte coating on electrodes

Jie Pan, Yang Tse Cheng, Yue Qi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Understanding the ionic conduction in solid electrolytes in contact with electrodes is vitally important to many applications, such as lithium ion batteries. The problem is complex because both the internal properties of the materials (e.g., electronic structure) and the characteristics of the externally contacting phases (e.g., voltage of the electrode) affect defect formation and transport. In this paper, we developed a method based on density functional theory to study the physics of defects in a solid electrolyte in equilibrium with an external environment. This method was then applied to predict the ionic conduction in lithium fluoride (LiF), in contact with different electrodes which serve as reservoirs with adjustable Li chemical potential (μLi) for defect formation. LiF was chosen because it is a major component in the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formed on lithium ion battery electrodes. Seventeen possible native defects with their relevant charge states in LiF were investigated to determine the dominant defect types on various electrodes. The diffusion barrier of dominant defects was calculated by the climbed nudged elastic band method. The ionic conductivity was then obtained from the concentration and mobility of defects using the Nernst-Einstein relationship. Three regions for defect formation were identified as a function of μLi: (1) intrinsic, (2) transitional, and (3) p-type region. In the intrinsic region (high μLi, typical for LiF on the negative electrode), the main defects are Schottky pairs and in the p-type region (low μLi, typical for LiF on the positive electrode) are Li ion vacancies. The ionic conductivity is calculated to be approximately 10-31Scm-1 when LiF is in contact with a negative electrode but it can increase to 10-12Scm-1 on a positive electrode. This insight suggests that divalent cation (e.g., Mg2+) doping is necessary to improve Li ion transport through the engineered LiF coating, especially for LiF on negative electrodes. Our results provide an understanding of the influence of the environment on defect formation and demonstrate a linkage between defect concentration in a solid electrolyte and the voltage of the electrode.

LanguageEnglish (US)
Article number134116
JournalPhysical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics
Volume91
Issue number13
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 30 2015

Profile

Ionic conduction
Solid electrolytes
solid electrolytes
lithium fluorides
coatings
conduction
Coatings
Defects
Electrodes
electrodes
Lithium
defects
Electric potential
electric potential
Ionic conductivity
Ionic conduction in solids
ion currents
electric batteries
ions
lithium

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials

Cite this

General method to predict voltage-dependent ionic conduction in a solid electrolyte coating on electrodes. / Pan, Jie; Cheng, Yang Tse; Qi, Yue.

In: Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, Vol. 91, No. 13, 134116, 30.04.2015.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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