Isolation and characterization of new lignin streams derived from extractive-ammonia (EA) pretreatment

Leonardo Da Costa Sousa, Marcus Foston, Vijay Bokade, Ali Azarpira, Fachuang Lu, Arthur J. Ragauskas, John Ralph, Bruce Dale, Venkatesh Balan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  • 20 Citations

Abstract

One of the key challenges facing lignin conversion to fuels and chemicals is related to the level of carbohydrate and ash impurities found in extracted lignin. Structural modifications of lignin may also occur as a result of biomass pretreatment and harsh lignin extraction protocols. Extractive-Ammonia (EA) is a new pretreatment technology that uses liquid ammonia to cleave lignin-carbohydrate complexes, decrystallize cellulose, solubilize lignin, and selectively extract lignin from lignocellulosic biomass, enabling better utilization of both lignin and carbohydrate components in a biorefinery. The EA-based biorefinery produces two different lignin-rich streams, with different properties, that could potentially be upgraded to fuels and chemicals using green processes. In this work, a water/ethanol-based fractionation method was developed to enrich the ammonia-soluble extractives, resulting in a major product stream containing 92% lignin. Detailed characterization of the various streams resulting from EA treatment, including compositional analysis, structural characterization by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry, elemental analysis, molecular weight analysis, and thermo-gravimetric analysis provides a broad evaluation of the EA-derived lignin product stream structures and properties, assessing their potential for commercial applications. In summary, EA-derived lignins preserve much of lignin's functionality, including the sensitive β-aryl ether units. Nitrogen incorporation was observed in the lignin-rich streams, notably due to the presence of hydroxycinnamoyl amides formed during ammonia pretreatment.

LanguageEnglish (US)
Pages4205-4215
Number of pages11
JournalGreen Chemistry
Volume18
Issue number15
DOIs
StatePublished - 2016

Profile

Lignin
Ammonia
lignin
ammonia
Carbohydrates
carbohydrate
Ashes
Biomass
molecular analysis
biomass
structural analysis
Fractionation
Amides
Structural analysis
Cellulose
ether
Ether
Spectrometry
spectrometry
nuclear magnetic resonance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Pollution

Cite this

Da Costa Sousa, L., Foston, M., Bokade, V., Azarpira, A., Lu, F., Ragauskas, A. J., ... Balan, V. (2016). Isolation and characterization of new lignin streams derived from extractive-ammonia (EA) pretreatment. Green Chemistry, 18(15), 4205-4215. DOI: 10.1039/c6gc00298f

Isolation and characterization of new lignin streams derived from extractive-ammonia (EA) pretreatment. / Da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Foston, Marcus; Bokade, Vijay; Azarpira, Ali; Lu, Fachuang; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Ralph, John; Dale, Bruce; Balan, Venkatesh.

In: Green Chemistry, Vol. 18, No. 15, 2016, p. 4205-4215.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Da Costa Sousa, L, Foston, M, Bokade, V, Azarpira, A, Lu, F, Ragauskas, AJ, Ralph, J, Dale, B & Balan, V 2016, 'Isolation and characterization of new lignin streams derived from extractive-ammonia (EA) pretreatment' Green Chemistry, vol 18, no. 15, pp. 4205-4215. DOI: 10.1039/c6gc00298f
Da Costa Sousa L, Foston M, Bokade V, Azarpira A, Lu F, Ragauskas AJ et al. Isolation and characterization of new lignin streams derived from extractive-ammonia (EA) pretreatment. Green Chemistry. 2016;18(15):4205-4215. Available from, DOI: 10.1039/c6gc00298f
Da Costa Sousa, Leonardo ; Foston, Marcus ; Bokade, Vijay ; Azarpira, Ali ; Lu, Fachuang ; Ragauskas, Arthur J. ; Ralph, John ; Dale, Bruce ; Balan, Venkatesh. / Isolation and characterization of new lignin streams derived from extractive-ammonia (EA) pretreatment. In: Green Chemistry. 2016 ; Vol. 18, No. 15. pp. 4205-4215
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