Nanoscale self assembly of triblock copolymers in epoxy polymer composites: A comparison to traditional rubber toughening

N. T. Kamar, L. T. Drzal

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Abstract

This research investigated the ability of a traditional rubber toughening agent, namely carboxyl-terminated butadiene-acryltonitrile (CTBN) and the triblock copolymer (poly)-styene-block-(poly)-butadiene-block-(poly)-methylmethacrylate (SBM) (Arkema E21) to toughen a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA) epoxy resin cured with m-phenylenediamine (mPDA). It was found that both CTBN and SBM additives led to decreases in epoxy polymer composite (EPC) flexural properties and increases in fracture toughness (KQ). Fracture surface investigation by scanning electron microscopy showed that CTBN phase separated into particles with diameters on the order of microns, while SBM self assembled into 100 nm spherical micelles which, at larger concentrations in the epoxy, tended to aggregate to form an interpenetrated network. In both systems, cavitation of spherical rubbery domains and matrix shear yielding were identified as toughening mechanisms. Additionally, the SBM EPC fracture surfaces showed pullout of SBM particles. The finer particle size of the SBM terpolymer in DGEBA led to a 215% increase in KQ at 10 phr SBM, while 10 phr CTBNx13 led to a 90% increase in KQ. Also, it was found that KQ increased linearly with concentration for the SBM EPCs, while CTBN EPC KQ did not increase linearly with concentration. Further, dynamic mechanical analysis showed that CTBN plasticizes the epoxy matrix, leading to decreases in glass transition temperature (Tg). A decrease in cured epoxy Tg by the addition of SBM at 5, 10 and 15 phr was not observed. Finally, the influence of curative concentration on cured DGEBA mechanical, thermomechanical and KQ was explored. Maxima in flexural strength and modulus were observed for epoxide rich networks and maximum KQ was observed for amine rich networks. Therefore, SBM was used to modify amine rich networks, which showed more 'toughenibility' and a 300% increase in KQ at 10 phr SBM additive.

LanguageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationProceedings of the American Society for Composites - 30th Technical Conference, ACS 2015
PublisherDEStech Publications
ISBN (Electronic)9781605952253
StatePublished - 2015
Event30th Annual Technical Conference of the American Society for Composites, ASC 2015 - East Lansing, United States
Duration: Sep 28 2015Sep 30 2015

Other

Other30th Annual Technical Conference of the American Society for Composites, ASC 2015
CountryUnited States
CityEast Lansing
Period9/28/159/30/15

Profile

Toughening
Rubber
Butadiene
Self assembly
Block copolymers
Polymers
Composite materials
Ethers
Amines
Methylmethacrylate
Epoxy Resins
Terpolymers
Epoxy Compounds
Micelles
Dynamic mechanical analysis
Cavitation
Epoxy resins
Bending strength
1,3-butadiene
Fracture toughness

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ceramics and Composites

Cite this

Kamar, N. T., & Drzal, L. T. (2015). Nanoscale self assembly of triblock copolymers in epoxy polymer composites: A comparison to traditional rubber toughening. In Proceedings of the American Society for Composites - 30th Technical Conference, ACS 2015 DEStech Publications.

Nanoscale self assembly of triblock copolymers in epoxy polymer composites : A comparison to traditional rubber toughening. / Kamar, N. T.; Drzal, L. T.

Proceedings of the American Society for Composites - 30th Technical Conference, ACS 2015. DEStech Publications, 2015.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Kamar, NT & Drzal, LT 2015, Nanoscale self assembly of triblock copolymers in epoxy polymer composites: A comparison to traditional rubber toughening. in Proceedings of the American Society for Composites - 30th Technical Conference, ACS 2015. DEStech Publications, 30th Annual Technical Conference of the American Society for Composites, ASC 2015, East Lansing, United States, 9/28/15.
Kamar NT, Drzal LT. Nanoscale self assembly of triblock copolymers in epoxy polymer composites: A comparison to traditional rubber toughening. In Proceedings of the American Society for Composites - 30th Technical Conference, ACS 2015. DEStech Publications. 2015.
Kamar, N. T. ; Drzal, L. T./ Nanoscale self assembly of triblock copolymers in epoxy polymer composites : A comparison to traditional rubber toughening. Proceedings of the American Society for Composites - 30th Technical Conference, ACS 2015. DEStech Publications, 2015.
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title = "Nanoscale self assembly of triblock copolymers in epoxy polymer composites: A comparison to traditional rubber toughening",
abstract = "This research investigated the ability of a traditional rubber toughening agent, namely carboxyl-terminated butadiene-acryltonitrile (CTBN) and the triblock copolymer (poly)-styene-block-(poly)-butadiene-block-(poly)-methylmethacrylate (SBM) (Arkema E21) to toughen a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA) epoxy resin cured with m-phenylenediamine (mPDA). It was found that both CTBN and SBM additives led to decreases in epoxy polymer composite (EPC) flexural properties and increases in fracture toughness (KQ). Fracture surface investigation by scanning electron microscopy showed that CTBN phase separated into particles with diameters on the order of microns, while SBM self assembled into 100 nm spherical micelles which, at larger concentrations in the epoxy, tended to aggregate to form an interpenetrated network. In both systems, cavitation of spherical rubbery domains and matrix shear yielding were identified as toughening mechanisms. Additionally, the SBM EPC fracture surfaces showed pullout of SBM particles. The finer particle size of the SBM terpolymer in DGEBA led to a 215{\%} increase in KQ at 10 phr SBM, while 10 phr CTBNx13 led to a 90{\%} increase in KQ. Also, it was found that KQ increased linearly with concentration for the SBM EPCs, while CTBN EPC KQ did not increase linearly with concentration. Further, dynamic mechanical analysis showed that CTBN plasticizes the epoxy matrix, leading to decreases in glass transition temperature (Tg). A decrease in cured epoxy Tg by the addition of SBM at 5, 10 and 15 phr was not observed. Finally, the influence of curative concentration on cured DGEBA mechanical, thermomechanical and KQ was explored. Maxima in flexural strength and modulus were observed for epoxide rich networks and maximum KQ was observed for amine rich networks. Therefore, SBM was used to modify amine rich networks, which showed more 'toughenibility' and a 300{\%} increase in KQ at 10 phr SBM additive.",
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