Physical characteristics of AFEX-pretreated and densified switchgrass, prairie cord grass, and corn stover

Bishnu Karki, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Yijing Wang, Bruce Dale, Venkatesh Balan, William R. Gibbons, Chinnadurai Karunanithy

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    • 9 Citations

    Abstract

    The goal of the study was to evaluate and compare the physical properties of control, pretreated and densified corn stover, switchgrass, and prairie cord grass samples. Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) pretreated switchgrass, corn stover, and prairie cord grass samples were densified by using the comPAKco device developed by Federal Machine Company of Fargo, ND. The densified biomass were referred as "PAKs" in this study. All feedstocks were ground into three different grind size of 2, 4 and 8 mm prior to AFEX pretreatment and the impact of grinding on pellet properties was studied. The results showed that the physical properties of AFEX-PAKed material were not influenced by the initial grind size of the feedstocks. The bulk density of the AFEX-PAKed biomass increased by 1.2-6 fold as compared to untreated and AFEX-pretreated materials. The durability of the AFEX-PAKed materials were between 78.25 and 95.2%, indicating that the AFEX-PAKed biomass can be transported easily. To understand the effect of storage on the physical properties of these materials, samples were stored in the ambient condition (20 ± 2 °C and 70 ± 5% relative humidity) for six months. After storage, thermal properties of the biomass did not change but glass transition temperature decreased. The water absorption index and water solubility index of AFEX-treated and AFEX-PAKed biomass showed mixed trends after storage. Moisture content decreased and durability increased upon storage.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)164-174
    Number of pages11
    JournalBiomass and Bioenergy
    Volume78
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Jul 1 2015

    Profile

    ammonia
    Ammonia
    Fibers
    biomass
    Biomass
    Panicum virgatum
    corn stover
    swelling (materials)
    prairies
    physical properties
    grasses
    sampling
    prairie
    physical property
    maize
    grass
    Physical properties
    durability
    feedstocks
    water

    Keywords

    • Ammonia fiber expansion
    • Densification
    • Lignocellulosic
    • Pellet durability
    • Storage

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Agronomy and Crop Science
    • Forestry
    • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
    • Waste Management and Disposal

    Cite this

    Physical characteristics of AFEX-pretreated and densified switchgrass, prairie cord grass, and corn stover. / Karki, Bishnu; Muthukumarappan, Kasiviswanathan; Wang, Yijing; Dale, Bruce; Balan, Venkatesh; Gibbons, William R.; Karunanithy, Chinnadurai.

    In: Biomass and Bioenergy, Vol. 78, 01.07.2015, p. 164-174.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Karki, Bishnu; Muthukumarappan, Kasiviswanathan; Wang, Yijing; Dale, Bruce; Balan, Venkatesh; Gibbons, William R.; Karunanithy, Chinnadurai / Physical characteristics of AFEX-pretreated and densified switchgrass, prairie cord grass, and corn stover.

    In: Biomass and Bioenergy, Vol. 78, 01.07.2015, p. 164-174.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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    AU - Wang,Yijing

    AU - Dale,Bruce

    AU - Balan,Venkatesh

    AU - Gibbons,William R.

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