Physical characteristics of AFEX-pretreated and densified switchgrass, prairie cord grass, and corn stover

Bishnu Karki, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Yijing Wang, Bruce Dale, Venkatesh Balan, William R. Gibbons, Chinnadurai Karunanithy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

The goal of the study was to evaluate and compare the physical properties of control, pretreated and densified corn stover, switchgrass, and prairie cord grass samples. Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) pretreated switchgrass, corn stover, and prairie cord grass samples were densified by using the comPAKco device developed by Federal Machine Company of Fargo, ND. The densified biomass were referred as "PAKs" in this study. All feedstocks were ground into three different grind size of 2, 4 and 8 mm prior to AFEX pretreatment and the impact of grinding on pellet properties was studied. The results showed that the physical properties of AFEX-PAKed material were not influenced by the initial grind size of the feedstocks. The bulk density of the AFEX-PAKed biomass increased by 1.2-6 fold as compared to untreated and AFEX-pretreated materials. The durability of the AFEX-PAKed materials were between 78.25 and 95.2%, indicating that the AFEX-PAKed biomass can be transported easily. To understand the effect of storage on the physical properties of these materials, samples were stored in the ambient condition (20 ± 2 °C and 70 ± 5% relative humidity) for six months. After storage, thermal properties of the biomass did not change but glass transition temperature decreased. The water absorption index and water solubility index of AFEX-treated and AFEX-PAKed biomass showed mixed trends after storage. Moisture content decreased and durability increased upon storage.

LanguageEnglish (US)
Pages164-174
Number of pages11
JournalBiomass and Bioenergy
Volume78
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2015

Profile

Panicum virgatum
corn stover
prairies
prairie
Ammonia
ammonia
maize
grass
grasses
Fibers
Biomass
swelling (materials)
biomass
physical properties
Physical properties
physical property
durability
feedstocks
Feedstocks
Durability

Keywords

  • Ammonia fiber expansion
  • Densification
  • Lignocellulosic
  • Pellet durability
  • Storage

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Forestry
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Waste Management and Disposal

Cite this

Karki, B., Muthukumarappan, K., Wang, Y., Dale, B., Balan, V., Gibbons, W. R., & Karunanithy, C. (2015). Physical characteristics of AFEX-pretreated and densified switchgrass, prairie cord grass, and corn stover. Biomass and Bioenergy, 78, 164-174. DOI: 10.1016/j.biombioe.2015.04.018

Physical characteristics of AFEX-pretreated and densified switchgrass, prairie cord grass, and corn stover. / Karki, Bishnu; Muthukumarappan, Kasiviswanathan; Wang, Yijing; Dale, Bruce; Balan, Venkatesh; Gibbons, William R.; Karunanithy, Chinnadurai.

In: Biomass and Bioenergy, Vol. 78, 01.07.2015, p. 164-174.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Karki, B, Muthukumarappan, K, Wang, Y, Dale, B, Balan, V, Gibbons, WR & Karunanithy, C 2015, 'Physical characteristics of AFEX-pretreated and densified switchgrass, prairie cord grass, and corn stover' Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 78, pp. 164-174. DOI: 10.1016/j.biombioe.2015.04.018
Karki B, Muthukumarappan K, Wang Y, Dale B, Balan V, Gibbons WR et al. Physical characteristics of AFEX-pretreated and densified switchgrass, prairie cord grass, and corn stover. Biomass and Bioenergy. 2015 Jul 1;78:164-174. Available from, DOI: 10.1016/j.biombioe.2015.04.018
Karki, Bishnu ; Muthukumarappan, Kasiviswanathan ; Wang, Yijing ; Dale, Bruce ; Balan, Venkatesh ; Gibbons, William R. ; Karunanithy, Chinnadurai. / Physical characteristics of AFEX-pretreated and densified switchgrass, prairie cord grass, and corn stover. In: Biomass and Bioenergy. 2015 ; Vol. 78. pp. 164-174
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