The Origin of Flank Wear in Turning Ti-6Al-4V

Trung Nguyen, Patrick Kwon, Di Kang, Thomas R. Bieler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Unlike ferrous materials, where the cementite (Fe3C) phase acts as an abrasive that contributes to flank wear on the cutting tool, most titanium (Ti) alloys possesses no significant hard phase. Thus, the origin of flank wear is unclear in machining Ti alloys. To address this question, a Ti-6Al-4V bar was turned under various conditions with uncoated carbide and polycrystalline diamond (PCD) inserts, most commonly used tool materials for machining Ti alloys. These inserts were retrieved sporadically while tuning to examine the wear patterns using a confocal microscope. To correlate the patterns with the microstructure of the original bar, the microstructure was carefully characterized using Orientation Image Microscopy™ (OIM) with electron-backscattered diffraction (EBSD). From the wear patterns, two distinct types of damage were identified: (a) microscopic and macroscopic fractures on the cutting edges and (b) scoring marks on flank faces. This paper demonstrates that both types of damage were caused primarily by the heterogeneity in hardness in the α-crystals, where the plane perpendicular to the c-axis in an α-crystal is substantially harder than any other direction in the α-crystal as well as the isotropic β-crystal. In addition to such heterogeneities, adhesion layer, ubiquitous to machining Ti alloys, detaches small fragments of the tool, which resulted in microscopic and macroscopic fractures observed on flank wear.

LanguageEnglish (US)
Article number121013
JournalJournal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Transactions of the ASME
Volume138
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2016

Profile

Titanium alloys
Titanium
Wear of materials
Machining
Crystals
Die casting inserts
Microstructure
Cutting tools
Abrasives
Electron diffraction
Carbides
Diamonds
Microscopic examination
Microscopes
Adhesion
Tuning
Hardness

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

Cite this

The Origin of Flank Wear in Turning Ti-6Al-4V. / Nguyen, Trung; Kwon, Patrick; Kang, Di; Bieler, Thomas R.

In: Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Transactions of the ASME, Vol. 138, No. 12, 121013, 01.12.2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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